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Accelerating Vaccine Development and deployment: report of a Royal Society satellite meeting

The Royal Society convened a meeting on the 17th and 18th November 2010 to review the current ways in which vaccines are developed and deployed, and to make recommendations as to how each of these processes might be accelerated. The meeting brought together academics, industry representatives, research sponsors, regulators, government advisors and representatives of international public health agencies from a broad geographical background. Discussions were held under Chatham House rules.

Pandemic Vaccine Preparedness - Have We Left Something Behind?

Influenza A viruses all originate from aquatic birds, which are their natural reservoir. From this vast, ever-present and global source they are able to cross the species barrier and infect a variety of hosts, including humans. Progressive viral adaptation of avian-origin viruses to novel hosts including domesticated birds, pigs, horses, dogs, or humans may result in widespread viral circulation and in the establishment of endemic viruses in a given population.

Wild immunology: converging on the real world

Recently, the Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution sponsored a one-day symposium entitled "Wild Immunology." The CIIE is a new Wellcome Trust-funded initiative with the remit to connect evolutionary biology and ecology with research in immunology and infectious diseases in order to gain an interdisciplinary perspective on challenges to global health.

Of Mice and Not Men: Differences between Mouse and Human Immunology

Mice are the experimental tool of choice for the majority of immunologists and the study of their immune responses has yielded tremendous insight into the workings of the human immune system. However, as 65 million years of evolution might suggest, there are significant differences.

Exploiting ovine immunology to improve the relevance of biomedical models

Animal models of human disease are important tools in many areas of biomedicine; for example, in infectious disease research and in the development of novel drugs and medical devices. Most studies involving animals use rodents, in particular congenic mice, due to the availability of a wide number of strains and the ease with which they can be genetically manipulated. The use of mouse models has led to major advances in many fields of research, in particular in immunology but despite these advances, no animal model can exactly reproduce all the features of human disease.

Current drivers and future directions of global livestock disease dynamics

We review the global dynamics of livestock disease over the last two decades. Our imperfect ability to detect and report disease hinders assessment of trends, but we suggest that, although endemic diseases continue their historic decline in wealthy countries, poor countries experience static or deteriorating animal health and epidemic diseases show both regression and expansion.

Coadministration of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine and MVA-NP+M1 Simultaneously Achieves Potent Humoral and Cell-Mediated Responses

Current seasonal influenza vaccines have reduced immunogenicity and are of suboptimal efficacy in older adults. We have previously shown that the novel candidate vaccine MVA-NP+M1 is able to boost memory T cell responses in adults aged 50-85 years. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that viral vectored vaccines can act as adjuvants when coadministered with protein-based vaccines. We have conducted a phase I clinical trial to compare the coadministration of seasonal influenza vaccine and MVA-NP+M1 with seasonal influenza vaccine alone in adults aged 50 years and above.

Structure and Function of RSV Surface Glycoproteins

The two major glycoproteins on the surface of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) virion, the attachment glycoprotein (G) and the fusion glycoprotein (F), control the initial phases of infection. G targets the ciliated cells of the airways, and F causes the virion membrane to fuse with the target cell membrane. The F protein is the major target for antiviral drug development, and both G and F glycoproteins are the antigens targeted by neutralizing antibodies induced by infection.

Structure of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Glycoprotein in the Postfusion Conformation Reveals Preservation of Neutralizing Epitopes

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) invades host cells via a type I fusion (F) glycoprotein that undergoes dramatic structural rearrangements during the fusion process. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, such as 101F, palivizumab, and motavizumab, target two major antigenic sites on the RSV F glycoprotein. The structures of these sites as peptide complexes with motavizumab and 101F have been previously determined, but a structure for the trimeric RSV F glycoprotein ectodomain has remained elusive.

A Gene Expression Signature for RSV: Clinical Implications and Limitations

Peter Openshaw discusses the challenges in advancing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) treatments and the implications of a study by Mejias and colleagues using a newly identified gene signature for diagnosis and prediction of RSV severity. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

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