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Three Rs approach in the production and quality control of fish vaccines

The workshop on Three Rs Approaches in the Production and Quality Control of Fish Vaccines aimed a) to identify animal tests currently stipulated for the production and quality control of fish vaccines and to highlight animal welfare concerns associated with these tests; b) to identify viable options to replace, reduce, and refine animal use for fish vaccine testing; and c) to discuss the way forward and set out how the Three Rs may be implemented without jeopardizing the quality of the vaccines.

Virus-like particles: The new frontier of vaccines for animal viral infections

Vaccination continues to be the main approach to protect animals from infectious diseases. Until recently, all licensed vaccines were developed using conventional technologies. Subunit vaccines are, however, gaining attention from researchers in the field of veterinary vaccinology, and among these, virus-like particles (VLPs) represent one of the most appealing approaches. VLPs are robust protein cages in the nanometer range that mimic the overall structure of the native virions but lack the viral genome.

Chimeric influenza-virus-like particles containing the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 protein and the influenza virus HA and M1 proteins

Both porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and swine influenza are acute, highly contagious swine diseases. These diseases pose severe threats for the swine industry and cause heavy economic losses worldwide. In this study, we have developed a chimeric virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidate for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and H3N2 influenza virus and investigated its immunogenicity in mice.

CD4+ T-cell responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated cattle

We have performed a series of studies to investigate the role of CD4(+) T-cells in the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) post-vaccination. Virus neutralizing antibody titres (VNT) in cattle vaccinated with killed FMD commercial vaccine were significantly reduced and class switching delayed as a consequence of rigorous in vivo CD4(+) T-cell depletion. Further studies were performed to examine whether the magnitude of T-cell proliferative responses correlated with the antibody responses.

P and M gene junction is the optimal insertion site in Newcastle disease virus vaccine vector for foreign gene expression

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been developed as a vector for vaccine and gene therapy purposes. However, the optimal insertion site for foreign gene expression remained to be determined. In the present study, we inserted the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene into five different intergenic regions of the enterotropic NDV VG/GA vaccine strain using reverse genetics technology. The rescued recombinant viruses retained lentogenic pathotype and displayed delayed growth dynamics, particularly when the GFP gene was inserted between the NP and P genes of the virus.

An MHC-restricted CD8+ T-cell response is induced in cattle by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection and also following vaccination with inactivated FMDV.

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hooved animals that carries enormous economic consequences. CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes play an important role in protection and disease outcome in viral infections but, to date, the role of the CD8(+) T-cell immune response to FMDV remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted CD8(+) T-cell responses to FMDV in vaccinated and in infected cattle.

A neutralising antibody selected from plasma cells that binds to group 1 and group 2 influenza A haemagglutinins

The isolation of broadly neutralizing antibodies against influenza A viruses has been a long-sought goal for therapeutic approaches and vaccine design. Using a single-cell culture method for screening large numbers of human plasma cells, we isolated a neutralizing monoclonal antibody that recognized the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of all 16 subtypes and neutralized both group 1 and group 2 influenza A viruses. Passive transfer of this antibody conferred protection to mice and ferrets.

Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design

Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Multiple major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed.

Immunological mechanisms of vaccination

Vaccines represent one of the greatest triumphs of modern medicine. Despite the common origins of vaccinology and immunology more than 200 years ago, the two disciplines have evolved along such different trajectories that most of the highly successful vaccines have been made empirically, with little or no immunological insight. Recent advances in innate immunity have offered new insights about the mechanisms of vaccine-induced immunity and have facilitated a more rational approach to vaccine design. Here we will discuss these advances and emerging themes on the immunology of vaccination

Systems immunogenetics of Vaccines

Vaccines are the most cost effective public health measure for preventing viral infection and limiting epidemic spread within susceptible populations. However, the efficacy of current protective vaccines is highly variable, particularly in aging populations. In addition, there have been a number of challenges in the development of new vaccines due to a lack of detailed understanding of the immune correlates of protection.

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