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Epidemiology and Economics

Research Gaps

Epidemiology, Transmission and Modelling

  • Pathogenesis and epidemiology for many livestock and zoonotic pathogens
  • Epidemiology and evolution of animal pathogens e.g. carrier status, development of resistance
  • Modelling: efficacy of vaccines; cost-effectiveness of vaccine development; coverage; host dynamics; knowledge of pathogen/host immune traits to design vaccines; contact networks
  • Integrated multidisciplinary studies e.g. transmission in relation to efficacy
  • Effective vaccines - prevention of infection and transmission. Different livestock scenarios – equine, swine, poultry other
  • Big data and whole genome analysis
  • Herd Immunity

One Health Approach

  • Interaction with Human Vaccinology community.
  • Communication between veterinary scientists from different species or specialties
  • Help providing: critical mass in vaccine design and development
  • Exploiting synergies in human and veterinary vaccine development
  • Sharing essential core facilities and know-how
  • Importance of zoonotic infection: target the animal vector for human disease eradication.
  • Complementary studies in human and animal models of pathogen challenge
  • Integration of human experimental immunology models with primate /other animal models
  • Transferability of expertise and regulatory regimes

Interaction with Industry

  • Commercial impact of veterinary vaccines other than for poultry and pigs
  • Accelerating vaccine development to get products to market sooner
  • Collaboration between industry and academia within the UK
  • Effective links with industry and translation
  • Improving interactions with the animal health industry


  • Support for good large scale vaccine trials in animals
  • Translating experimental findings through to validated products
  • Translational medicine research, clinical trial design improvement
  • Can field conditions be manipulated to optimize vaccine responses
  • Bridging basic research on pathogen biology and pre-commercial translational research aimed at putting a specific product into the market.
  • Critical gaps of understanding and communication between the market, i.e. animal health and livestock industries and the academic sector


  • Economic impact of veterinary diseases in livestock species in the UK (endemic diseases) or potential impact (Exotic diseases) to focus funding
  • Vaccine effectiveness: needs to be to give adequate protection in the field to be economically acceptable
  • Any candidate vaccine should be available at a sufficiently low cost to enable its deployment
  • Lack of technology to generate multiple subunit vaccine antigens in a cost-effective manner
  • Appropriate financial models for development and appropriate motivations for farmers to adopt vaccines

Social Acceptance

  • Anticipating public/veterinary perception of any new products.
  • Effective interdisciplinary integration between natural and social sciences
  • Translate basic research through to products and processes that meet societal needs
  • Involvement of social scientists who also have a good understanding of the science and technology being developed and of innovation and regulatory processes
  • Costs and benefits to individuals and society.


  • Field-based surveillance within wider animal populations of vaccine coverage and effectiveness
  • Prevalence data on known pathogens and the identification of emerging and unknown/undiscovered pathogens.

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